Mechanical workshop practice pdf

 
    Contents
  1. Machine Tools and Workshop Practice for Engineering Students and Apprentices
  2. Workshop Practice Series pdf
  3. Workshop Machinery and Its Significance in Engineering World
  4. Workshop Machinery and Its Significance in Engineering World

INSTRUCTOR IN FITTING AND MACHINE SHOP, AND FORGE. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, NOTTINGHAM. WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY. WILLIAM ROBINSON . Joseph George Konnully at Muffakham Jah College of Engineering and Technology General workshop practices are included in the curriculum in order to. An essential guide to the workshop for all mechanical and production engineering students. ▷ Health and safety chapter covers current best practice and has.

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Mechanical Workshop Practice Pdf

Mechanical Tools. Machining Processes Tools. Dr. Abdel-Wahab El-Morsy Hand files are used in the workshop to smooth rough edges. They can be used. Engineering workshop acissymhalfmac.gq - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. The Workshop Practice course makes students competent in handling practical work in engineering environment. Mechanical Engineering Workshop is also.

Processes effecting change in properties. Wire drawing lead to the directly usable articles, which do not need further processing before use. Casting,forging, bending, rolling, drawing, power metal forging, etc 1. These operations require the use of one or more machine tools, various types of cutting tools and cutters, job holding devices, marking and measuring instruments, testing devices and gauges etc. Common machining operations are: Turning,Threading. Such requirement usually occur when larger lengths of standard sections are required or several pieces are to be joined together to fabricate a desired structure. Thus, any appreciable variation in dimensions will not be effected by these processes. The common processes employed for obtaining desired surface finish are the following: 1. Buffing 2. Polishing 3. Lapping 4. Belt grinding 5. Metal spraying 6.

Lap joint by arc welding 4. Finishing of two sides of a square piece by filing 2. Making mechanical joint and soldering of joint on sheet metal 3.

To cut a square notch using hacksaw and to drill a hole and tapping Sheet Metal Shop Making of Funnel using sheet metal Suggested Readings: 1. Mechanical Workshop Practice, K. Workshop Technology, W. Subscribe to view the full document.

Fourier Series: Orthogonal functions, periodic functions, Fourier series of periodic functions, Euler formula, change of intervals, Even and Odd functions, half range Fourier sine and cosine series; Harmonic analysis.

Differential Equations : Linear differential equations of first order, Reducible to linear form, Exact differential equations, reducible to exact form; Linear Differential Equations of Higher order with constant coefficients, Simultaneous linear differential equations.

Second order linear ODE with variables coefficients, Homogenous and exact forms, Change of dependent and independent variables; Variation of parameters, Method of Undetermined coefficients, Euler-Cauchy equations. Solutions of PDE of Second order using separation of variable method. Kickbacks from machine due to sudden impact loading, sudden blow from workload etc.

Flying chips, thrown object etc. Sharp projections from tool edges e. Fire and explosion hazards 6. Electrical shock, stunning, burn or electrocution as a result of contact with exposed or un-insulated life wire. Health hazards Health hazards are situations associated with long term exposure to certain substances or exposure to excessive noise levels or vibrations.

Health hazards can cause both immediate acute and longer-term chronic health conditions. For example, exposure to turpentine, waxes and finishes, a chemical used in furniture industry, can result in a range of health effects, ranging from temporary eyes irritation and more debilitating 6 P a g e skin effects to severe kidney and bladder damage.

Machine Tools and Workshop Practice for Engineering Students and Apprentices

Health injuries are commonly associated with operating environment Operating environment that could cause health hazards include: 1. Excessive noise resulting from long time exposure to continuous machine operation or exposure to noisy machine operation.

Vibration: Vibration as a result of working on platforms, working around heavy and undamped equipment or constantly being exposed to moving parts could cause muscular disorders. Wood dust: These are particulate fine materials that seems harmless, however, long time exposure to them can heavy inhalation of quantity big enough to result in air track blockage thereby causing carcinogenic effects on the skin.

Harmful chemicals: Exposures to coatings, finishing, adhesives, solvent vapours could result in health hazards.

Workshop Practice Series pdf

Types of hazard Hazards in workplaces are grouped into four categories accordingly. Category 1: Physical hazards: Physical hazards could cause traumatic injuries as a result of human exposure to the source. Category 3: Biological hazards: These are hazards resulting from human exposure to pathogenic substances or materials from sewerages, lagoons aerobic or anaerobic. These pathogens include viruses, fungi, bacterial or mold. They cause an attack on blood and body fluids.

Category 4: Psychological hazards occur as a result of unfavourable working conditions, inadequate and inappropriate work tools, working with old or worn and out of fashion obsolete tools and equipment and undue exposure to hazards due to poor management responses to change. Occupational hazards Apart from accidents caused by carelessness and recklessness, workers are exposed to certain hazards in the course of their undertaken, a form of risk associated with the work that somebody does.

Workshop Machinery and Its Significance in Engineering World

This is known as Occupational Hazards or Job Risk. Occupational diseases and illnesses Occupational disease is a major category of environmental hazard, and refers to illness resulting from job-related exposures. Risk and consequences of risk taking Risk Risk is defined as any human venture or engagement with the likelihood of causing a specific harm or injury to persons or damage to property.

For example, if a person works on a meter high platform without any guard railing and safety harness, the 8 P a g e risk of falling and getting killed is obviously very high.

The tendency of working at such height and not sustaining any injury is there, however the consequence is grave when an incidence of hazard occur. Hence risk can be defined as the combination of the probability or possibility of an event happening and its consequences. Consequences of risk taking There is an element of risk in every activity that man is associated with.

Risk is present when we eat, sleep, walk and wherever we work. In as much as we are companions with risk, efforts should be made to keep the risk under i. Accident Accident is an unforeseen occurrence with negative consequence as a result of sudden impact, system malfunction human error or as a result of carelessness when we undertake unsafe acts.

Accident results in pains, loss of body member or death to victims, a waste of time, money, materials and damage to equipment. Consequently, it is of interest to devise measures to prevent or reduce accidents in all operations to the barest minimum. Physical injury harm results from contact between people and harmful objects, substances, or other things in their surroundings. Common types of physical injury include broken bones, cuts, bruises, brain damage, poisoning and burns.

Some physical injuries are the intended result of acts by people: for instance harm of one person by another assault, homicide etc. Injuries not intended are often described as accidental injuries. Examples of causes of injury include being struck by a car, being cut up in a moving machine part, being cut by a knife, bitten by a dog, or poisoned by inhaled fuel or other dangerous chemicals. Nature of body injury The occurrence of accidents in workplaces often results in one or more of the following injury types: 9 P a g e 1.

Crushing: This is injury which results from caught-in hazard point within machinery 2. Fracture: This is injury to bone resulting in breakage of the bone as a result of impact 3. Sprain: This is a type of injury resulting in muscular stress or joint dislocation 4. Bruise or laceration: This is the peeling off of outer skin layer thereby exposing some blood vessels.

The inner tissues are not affected. Scalding and burn: This is as a result of sudden exposure of body part to hot vapour or heat resulting in skin peeling off scalding or suffering some degree of shin damage burn. Inflammation: This could be as a result of impact on body casing internal bleeding or rupture of blood vessels without visible cut and blood flow 7. Superficial injury: Injury occurring at the skin surface such as bruise, minor cut, or scratches and lacerations.

Amputation: This is a case of fatal injury which often result from caught-in and struck-by accidents, 9. Death: This is a situation in which life flows out of the body as a result of injury sustained.

Such case is regarded as a fatal injury case. Definition of Safety Safety in its simplest form is a state of being at little or no risk of injury resulting from a harmful external impact, inhalation, or contact. It is a holistic approach to a state of wellbeing that requires people to feel they are free from being harmed in addition to actually being safe. To be safe in any work environment, you must think about the nature of your job and plan ahead to avert hazards that could be associated with it.

In the field of safety, it is generally recognized that consequences are only negative and therefore the management of safety risk is focused on prevention and mitigation of harm. This approach involves three steps as follows: 10 P a g e Step 1 Recognition: Identify hazards to which a person at the workplace is likely to be exposed; Step 2 Evaluation: Assess the risk of injury or harm to a person resulting from each hazard if any is identified in step 1; and Step 3 Control: Consider the means by which the risk may be reduced.

Note: It takes effort to recognize, evaluate, and control hazards.

Workshop Machinery and Its Significance in Engineering World

If you do not recognize, evaluate, and control hazards, you may be injured or killed by machinery, electricity, electrical fires, or falls. If you use the safety model to recognize, evaluate, and control hazards, you will be much safer. Workplace health and safety laws The aim of the Workplace Health and Safety Act is to prevent death, injury or illness caused by a workplace, relevant workplace area, work activities, plant or substances for use at a workplace.

Improving health and safety in workplaces reduces human and financial cost of injury and disease. Workers, their families, employers and the community benefit from improved workplace health and safety. The Workplace Health and Safety Act sets out the laws about health and safety guidelines for all relevant workplace areas, work procedures or activities by machinery or substances for use at workplaces as well as safeguarding workers.

All health and safety laws place specific duties of care or legal obligations on various parties in the chain of machinery design, supply and use. Workers, their families, employers and the community benefit from these obligations. Improving workplace health and safety in workplaces reduces the human and financial cost of workplace injury and disease. Workplace partners and responsibilities The following human elements have been recognized as the workplace partners in any such organization.

Employee: An employee is in the payroll of an employer. Self-employed: He is a job provider the employer as well as the employee. Supervisors: This is an employee with special skills and mastery in his field required to offer specialized or expert advice or direction on efficient job delivery. Duties of supervisors: A supervisor shall take such measures as are practicable to ensure that the workplace, or the means of access to or egress from the workplace, as the case may be, are such that persons who are at the workplace or use the means of access to and egress from the workplace are not exposed to hazards.

Safety obligations Every workplace partners has an obligation to ensure safety at every stages of their involvement. You can have more than one set of obligations stipulated under the Safety Act. For example, if you are an employer and a principal contractor a sole proprietor at the same time within the same workplace. In this case, you would have two sets of obligations - those of an employer on one hand and an employee on the other.

You must meet all the obligations under the Acts. This can be done through the following ways: 1.

Issue regulations that either prohibit exposure to a risk or prescribe ways to prevent or minimize exposure to such risks and you must comply with such regulations. Codes of practice: Code of practice is a document which gives practical advice about ways to manage exposure to risks identified as typical in workplace.

This document states ways to manage exposure to risks within workplace and job practices. To meet your obligations under the Act, you must follow codes of practice or adopt another way that offers at least the same.

Examples of such codes include Tractor Code, Where there is no regulation or code of practice about exposure to a risk, you can meet your obligations by choosing any appropriate way to minimize exposure to a risk and you must take reasonable precautions and exercise proper diligence in making sure the risk is managed. To properly manage exposure to risks, the risk management process must be undertaken to identify hazards and determine appropriate control measures.

Such processes are set out in a document called the risk management code of practice 4. Safety planning. Plan your work and plan for safety. Take time to plan your work, not alone, but with others. Safety planning is an important part of any task.

It is hard to take the time to plan for safety. But, you must plan. Plan to be safe! Health and safety policy A written health and safety policy is an important documentary part of safety rules for managing health and safety in your workplace and an important step in demonstrating management commitment. A health and safety policy explains: 1. The overall goals and objectives for health and safety 3. The responsibilities of management, workers, as well as visitors and contractors where applicable Work ergonomics Ergonomics is the human factors involvement in satisfactory work or job delivery and systems to maximize safety, comfort, and efficiency of the people who use them.

Ergonomics is not limited to human comfort in manual handling operations, but also in automated tool and machine handling. Ergonomics in manual handling: Manual handling of task includes any activity which requires a person to lift, lower, push, pull, hold or carries any object, animal or person. These considerations are assessed by the following factors: 1.

Moderating the extent of weight being lifted. Match up weight to be lifted with body weight; 2. Study the nature of body posture and improve on body layout when carrying load; 3. Regulate work frequency and duration of operation under long time and short time operations ; 4.

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